Why did the second wave of right turn begin in Europe?
It can be caused by a number of factors, such as the economic crisis, social dissatisfaction, migration and refugee crises, fear of globalization and changes in the cultural landscape.
Amidst the war in Ukraine, Europe is facing many economic difficulties, rising unemployment due to the severance of economic relations with Russia and the reorientation of its energy sector. Right-wing populist political parties are using these factors to attract voters by promising change and protection of national interests.
In his latest research paper "The Leftist Brahmins vs. the trade right", economist Thomas Piketty presents an interesting theory of how we ended up here. By analyzing election results in France, the UK and the US and comparing them with data on voter income and education, he found that in the 1950s and 1960s, left-wing parties received most of their support from poorer, less educated voters. Since then, the left has gradually become associated with well-educated voters, creating a "multiple elite" party system in the last two decades: highly educated elites now vote left, while high-income elites vote right.