Hospitality or risk for everyone?

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Indeed, people can face different problems in their lives. But recently these problems are mainly caused by external circumstances. For instance, refugees and migrants.

In general, people who subsequently of military actions and other unforeseen and unexpected circumstances, forced to leave their country or place where they constantly lived and have a fear of of being persecuted because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a social group or political opinion are called refugees in international law.

Refugees are among the most vulnerable people in the world. The 1951 Refugee Convention UN and its 1967 Protocol help protect them.

What does it mean in practice?

States are responsible for protecting the fundamental human rights of their citizens. When they are unable or unwilling to do so– for political reasons or based on discrimination– individuals may suffer serious violations of their human rights they have to leave their homes, their communities to find sanctuary in another country. Since, by definition, refugees are not protected by their own governments, the international community steps in to ensure they are safe and protected.

As we can see, the last thing is the real deal breaker. That has become the problem for Angela Merkel inside the Germany, Donald Trump considers refugees as a threat of the democracy of US, etc.

Obviously, the problems with the huge amount of refugees are not the problem of German federal chancellor. It rather shows that in Germany they have less trouble finding asylums, get social guarantees, receive food, take language courses and probably get a job and as a final step–become the citizens. And the government becomes responsible for their lives in this particular country.

They choose Germany because there they could feel themselves in safety and not be afraid of being deported immediately back home to danger. Probably, this was the reason why they came mostly to Germany at the beginning of refugee crisis in fall 2015. On a diagram you can see the dynamic of their arrival at Hamburg,Germany as one of the main centres and good examples for research.

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In fact, their choice depends on a country. For example Swedish government makes an exception for a period of time living in their country,  as a refugee to get a citizenship, you need only 4 years.

However, in Germany you should live about 8 years, but of course, you can apply for the citizenship earlier.

Аs a result of a policy called “open borders’’ the problem is the countries like Italy and Greece are used only as the transfers, to such countries like Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium and Finland. And obviously, they couldn’t deal with such quantity of people. They simply can’t build these camps fast enough to host the incoming refugees. According to the Dublin Regulation the refugees are obliged to register in the country where they enter EU. The threat is following: mostly they don’t want to live in the country that accepted their residence. If Schengen falls apart, this is it. There will no longer be an EU as we have known it. On the map below you can see the main routes of refugees in Europe.

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How the problem can be fixed?

The basis of a new mechanism should be the indexation of each EU country according to its size and economic power. If permissible figures are exceeded, refugees should be automatically allocated to other countries according to quotas. Against the innovations are only the Visegrad countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary). This group had voted again the EU plan to relocate 160,000 refugees from overcrowded camps in Greece and Italy.

Perhaps, the main threat is to provide policy on refugees by EU countries individually. According to a tendency of “twitter diplomacy” established by Trump and continued by Tusk we can say that EU is still alive and at the summit they have reached the consensus at least for now.   

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A compromise solution involves the creation of “ransit centers” in Germany near the border with Austria, of which asylum seekers registered in other EU countries must return to these countries. What is optional solution? EU’s mass media try to persuade others that the work of Frontex- European Border and Coast Guard Agency should be organized better. But the question is: maybe this agency is not so famous because it doesn’t show any visable results?

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Different aspects of this difficult question are also discussed across the ocean.

Donald Trump said that refugees are responsible for rising crime in Germany. It is true that in 2015/2016 years crimes in Germany grew, but in 2017-2018 the situation was leveled out and now it’s not critical anymore. Of course, in The White House they understand that in each counrty people are needed for undesirable jobs that native citizens consider to be inferior. And this sector can be filled with refugees. Why did he tell in London, that Europeans should be aware of immigration and it changed a lo lof things  for the worse. Why is Trump so worried? Why can’t refugees help him America great again?

The reason lies deeply more than 50 years. In the Protocol 1967 to the Convention, US had taken a commitment to provide equal social and medical services to all the refugees the same as americans. Maybe European leaders can remind him about this commitment, as recently he was talking so much about the commitments of  Washington Pact of NATO.

What is more, both the Democrats and the Republicans in USA clashed over the desision on separating the families of refugees. It wasn’t only the wish of Trump adminisration.Truly, he changed the policy in this issue. Previous adminisrations were not so succesful in preventing refugees living without any documents.

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Trump took the responsibility and tries to deal with the problem of big numbers of regugees getting free education, health care, income housing and other social services for free. But it causes so many social problems inside their society.

In general, the situation is also critical! Maybe the most sutaible examle is folowing: the case was hearing in court about 1-year old child without his parents in court! The case deals with the right to be in US. And his attorney asked him if he understood the letigation itself! How come can it be? That child was playing with his car and and did’t care about anything more. This horroble tendecy to separete the families has started in May 2018. During the whole trial, that may takes 2-8 monthes children and their parents should wait for the verdicts of their fortune in the camps.

Furthermore, the situation with refugees on the Mexican border also leaves much to be desired. Maybe Mr. Trump should solve the problem in his country, at first, because close the borders –it’s not a solution and only then think about giving tips to Europe’s countries.

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It’s clear, since Merkel and Trump have completely different visions about spending money in percentage of GDP to NATO, the question of migrants can be speculated by the owner of White House. Migrants and refugees can be the ones leading debates at the nearest elections in 2020. As they are undocumented, they can’t vote, so Trump can say whatever he likes about them as long as he gets support. What’s more, the idea of global treary of UN deals with migration, called Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration looks very attractive, because the convention is really old and the conditions of life has changed a long time ago. Unfortanetely, US refused to sign this document. But we’ll see.

All in all, the problem has still not been resolved completely. And probably will not be solved in the nearest future. But the famous rule of international relations that was established by Lord Palmerston: “We have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow” is not suitable to solve this complex problem. The solution should be the mutual agreement of all parts.

Author: Vladyslav Faraponov